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The new study included nearly 1,900 women who completed diet questionnaires at eight to 13 weeks of pregnancy, along with estimates of what they ate in the previous three months.
At 16 to 22 weeks and 24 to 29 weeks of pregnancy, the women detailed what they ate in the previous 24 hours.
Their responses were scored according to three measures of healthy eating: the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI); Alternate Mediterranean Diet (AMED); and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet.
All three encourage higher amounts of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and legumes, while limiting red and processed meat, according to Dr. Cuilin Zhang of the U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, in Bethesda, Md., and colleagues.
Following any of the diets between the time of conception through the second trimester was associated with a lower risk of gestational diabetes, high blood pressure, preeclampsia and preterm delivery, the researchers said in an institute news release.
For example, women with a high AHEI score at 16 to 22 weeks had a 32% lower risk for gestational diabetes, compared to women with a low AHEI score.
Women with a high DASH score at eight to 12 weeks and 16 to 22 weeks had a 19% lower risk for pregnancy-related high blood pressure disorders.
And a high AMED score at 24 to 29 weeks or a high DASH score at 24 to 29 weeks was associated with a 50% lower risk for preterm birth.
Severe high and low blood sugar events in older adults with type 1 diabetes may significantly increase their risk of dementia, according to a new study.
For people with diabetes, both severely high and low blood sugar levels are emergencies and both extremes can largely be avoided," said study author Rachel Whitmer, associate director of the Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at the University of California Davis School of Medicine.
The study, published online June 2 in the journal Neurology, included more than 2,800 people (average age: 56) with type 1 diabetes. Of those, 14% had a history of severely low blood sugar; 12%, severely high blood sugar; and 3% had a history of both.
Over an average seven-year follow-up, about 5% of participants developed dementia.
After adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity, those with low blood sugar episodes had a 75% higher dementia risk than those without. Those with high blood sugar episodes had more than twice the risk of dementia than those without.
Patients with a history of both types of blood sugar episodes had more six times the risk of dementia compared to those who had neither. The researchers noted that the study only found an association, rather than a cause-and-effect link.
People with type 1 diabetes are living longer than before, which may place them at risk of conditions such as dementia," Whitmer said in a journal news release. "If we can potentially decrease their risk of dementia by controlling their blood sugar levels, that could have beneficial effects for individuals and public health overall.
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